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    首頁> 外文學位 >Transportation energy and carbon footprints for U.S. corridors .
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    Transportation energy and carbon footprints for U.S. corridors .

    機譯:美國走廊的運輸能源和碳足跡。

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    摘要

    Changes in climate caused by changes in anthropogenic (i.e. "man-made") greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have become a major public policy issue in countries all over the world. With an estimated 28.4% of these emissions attributed to the transportation sector, attention is being focused on strategies aimed at reducing transportation GHG emissions. Quantifying the change in GHG emissions due to such strategies is one of the most challenging aspects of integrating GHG emissions and climate change into transportation planning and policy analysis; the inventory techniques and methods for estimating the impact of different strategies and policies are still relatively unsophisticated.;This research developed a method for estimating intercity passenger transportation energy and carbon footprints and applied this method to three corridors in the U.S.--San Francisco/Los Angeles/San Diego; Seattle/Portland/Eugene, and Philadelphia/Harrisburg/Pittsburg. These corridors are all US DOT-designated high speed rail (HSR) corridors. The methodology consists of estimating the number of trips by mode, estimating the direct CO2 emissions, and estimating indirect CO2 emissions.;For each study corridor the impacts of different strategies and policies on carbon dioxide emissions were estimated as an illustration of the policy application of the developed methodology. The largest gain in CO2 savings can be achieved by strategies aiming at automobile emissions, due to its sizeable share as main mode and access/egress mode to and from airports and bus and train stations: an average fuel economy of 35.5 mpg would result in a 38--42% savings of total CO2 emissions; replacing 25% of gasoline use with cellulosic ethanol can have a positive impact on CO 2 emissions of about 13.4--14.5%; and a 10% market share for electric vehicles would result in potential CO2 savings of 3.4--7.8%. The impact of a 20% or 35% improvement in aircraft efficiency on CO2 savings is much lower (0.88--3.65%) than the potential impacts of the policies targeting automobile emissions. Three HSR options were analyzed using Volpe's long-distance demand model: HSR125, HSR150, and HSR200. Only the HSR150 and HSR200 would result in CO2 savings, and then just for two of the three corridors: the Pacific Northwest (1.5%) and California (0.6--0.9%). With increased frequency and load factors, a HSR150 system could result in CO2 savings of 3.3% and 2.1% for the Pacific Northwest and California, respectively. This would require a mode shift from auto of 5--6%. This shift in auto mode share would mainly be a result of pricing strategies. One such pricing strategy, a carbon tax, could have a positive impact on auto diversion towards HSR. However, even a carbon tax of ;Recommendations and areas for further research to better understand or estimate the CO2 emission inventories and potential strategy impacts include: improving long-distance demand modeling and data, energy and emissions data, and life-cycle data; analyzing the cost-effectiveness of policies, future scenarios, pricing strategies to divert auto trips to HSR, network effects, other GHGs, and the impact of aircraft emissions at altitude; and including access and egress emissions.
    機譯:由人為(即“人為”)溫室氣體(GHG)排放量變化引起的氣候變化已成為世界各國的主要公共政策問題。這些排放量中估計有28.4%歸因于運輸部門,因此注意力集中在旨在減少運輸溫室氣體排放量的策略上。量化由于這些戰略而產生的溫室氣體排放變化是將溫室氣體排放和氣候變化納入運輸規劃和政策分析的最具挑戰性的方面之一;估算不同策略和政策影響的清單技術和方法仍然相對不完善。該研究開發了一種估算城市間客運能源和碳足跡的方法,并將該方法應用于美國的三個走廊-舊金山/洛斯洛杉磯/圣地亞哥;西雅圖/波特蘭/尤金和費城/哈里斯堡/匹茲堡。這些走廊都是美國DOT指定的高鐵(HSR)走廊。該方法包括按方式估算出行次數,估算直接CO2排放量以及估算間接CO2排放量;對于每個研究走廊,估算了不同策略和政策對二氧化碳排放量的影響,作為對政策應用的例證。發達的方法。通過以汽車排放為目標的策略,可以最大程度地減少二氧化碳的排放,這是由于其作為主要模式以及往返機場,巴士和火車站的進入/出口模式所占的份額相當大:35.5 mpg的平均燃油經濟性將導致減少二氧化碳排放總量38--42%;用纖維素乙醇替代25%的汽油使用量,可對CO 2排放產生約13.4--14.5%的積極影響;電動汽車的10%的市場份額將導致潛在的CO2節省3.4--7.8%。與針對汽車排放的政策的潛在影響相比,飛機效率提高20%或35%對二氧化碳節省的影響要低得多(0.88--3.65%)。使用Volpe的遠程需求模型分析了三個HSR選項:HSR125,HSR150和HSR200。只有HSR150和HSR200可以節省二氧化碳,然后僅對三個走廊中的兩個走廊:太平洋西北地區(1.5%)和加利福尼亞州(0.6--0.9%)。隨著頻率和負載系數的增加,HSR150系統可以使西北太平洋地區和加利福尼亞州的二氧化碳排放量分別減少3.3%和2.1%。這將需要從5-6%的自動模式轉換。自動模式份額的這種變化主要是定價策略的結果。一種這樣的定價策略,即碳稅,可能會對自動轉向高鐵產生積極影響。但是,甚至征收碳稅;為更好地理解或估算CO2排放清單和潛在的戰略影響而提出的建議和需要進一步研究的領域包括:改善長途需求建模和數據,能源和排放數據以及生命周期數據;分析政策的成本效益,未來情景,將自動旅行轉移到高鐵的定價策略,網絡影響,其他溫室氣體以及飛機排放在高空的影響;包括進入和出口排放。

    著錄項

    • 作者

      Sonnenberg, Anthony H.;

    • 作者單位

      Georgia Institute of Technology.;

    • 授予單位 Georgia Institute of Technology.;
    • 學科 Engineering Civil.;Sociology Public and Social Welfare.;Transportation.;Engineering Environmental.
    • 學位 Ph.D.
    • 年度 2010
    • 頁碼 197 p.
    • 總頁數 197
    • 原文格式 PDF
    • 正文語種 eng
    • 中圖分類
    • 關鍵詞

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